Category: Chetan Bhagat. Bengali Ebooks Read Online and Download All Free. Masud Rana (মাসুদ রানা) is a Bangladeshi fictional character which started in by Kazi Anwar Hussain (কাজী আনোয়ার হোসেন).It is a popula. Home > Book: Language: Bengali > Literature & Fiction > Five Point Someone ( Bengali). Book Details: Language: Bengali. ISBN: Page. One Night @ the Call Center By: Chetan BhagatIn "Chetan Bhagat". Half Girlfriend (English) -A love story by Chetan Bhagat free pdf.
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Five Point Someone Pdf Free Download In Bengali Language. True, my engineering degree was in the dumps. True we probably pointlessly slaved in Prof. Veera's lab mixing one type of with another all day. True, I may get . The author who took the world of English publishing by storm in the country by creating a record with his debut book 'Five Point Someone' is.
The girl who fell in love with him was anything but sane: But still, a plot so naive and stupid, that too accompanied with a low degree of writing left me rolling on the floor, laughing at the publisher's decision to publish it. The boys broke into the office to leak the papers so that they could get some extra points for themselves. I mean seriously? They broke into the IIT's office and tried to leak papers like anything.
It almost seemed like there was no security around the office. The boys have different motives for stealing the papers: Alok wants to get through the exam and get good marks. Whereas Ryan just wants to have his set of adventure. I mean, these guys want to end their future literally because they want to get good marks? Who would think that? If it's fiction it doesn't mean you can write any crap. It isn't fit to be called a book. Chetan Bhagat should consider joining English writing classes.
Overall, I think this was the worst read ever. I won't recommend this to anybody. If you're going to read it, please don't read this book. I made a mistake, hope you don't. View all 27 comments. Feb 08, Jyothi rated it did not like it. I must confess, this book is utter crap! Its an insult to English language. Its even worse than those soppy mushy crappy juvenile novels that I've seen my teenage friends gushing over! Honestly, did Bhagat ever edit his book???
Perhaps he simply didnt have any idea of what to write. View all 15 comments. Mar 23, Archit Ojha rated it it was amazing Shelves: Read this. Enjoyed this. But on the retrospection mode, I wonder what happened to the author. What started off as an amazing debut just turned into a different career story altogether.
When this book hit the stands back in the day, the craze was appreciable. Intelligently penned, fluent story-line and a captivating simpleton thought process. This marked the beginning of the IIT inspired love pages circulating all around the country. Some good, some poor. But this one - was a remarkable debut! Ushered Read this. Ushered in an era where this kind of fiction was dearth and lack luster. The movie that followed just lit up for a tremendous script recipe.
Although, if you try the same thing over and over again - it becomes damp, almost tasteless. That is what happened with the following books honestly. Feb 27, Sharadha Jayaraman rated it did not like it Recommends it for: Five Point Someone by Chetan Bhagat I downloadd this book a while back from a book vendor whose little shop by the streets is a part of an open circulatory library sort of thing in my city.
What happens in this circuit is that you download a book for a negotiable price and return it later at any date and time and get half the price back for it. I normally download these books and retain them with me because they are some pretty awesome downloads for the price I pay for them. So, I was pretty exci 0.
So, I was pretty excited to read this book - it was touted to be the author's best and about IIT and my dad's from IIT so I thought that I'd get to peek into what his life would've been like since he only talks about the fun parts and skips those about study pressure, student life, etc.
This wasn't my first Chetan Bhagat novel, so I didn't have great expectations on the language front.
What just happened was this though: Five Point Someone , dismally, had no language, no story and no characterisation whatsoever. Dear Mr. Bhagat, if you think that you can sell books by banking on the IIT brand name, then this novel proves you vehemently wrong and delusional.
Not only were the characters chummy, stupid and repetitive, but they also were unbelievable to be IIT material. Go for jogs in the morning hell, these guys even did pilates! Sneak out to have ice-cream.
Be overly emotional for no darn reason - even write letters that make a first-grader proud! Whining 24 x 7 x not about the syllabus or study load, but about family, love, and cheating, ugh!
If I compare these guys to my father, then I either feel like something's wrong with my dad or that the author's got the IIT mentality wrong at the roots I mean, aren't they supposed to be these demigods of intelligence? C'mon, the supporting cast had no girlfriends, you could have spared us ONE whole character, Mr.
All right, that said, I felt that Operation Pendulum's final night was cut straight out of a Bollywood movie - so many dramatic coincidences altogether NOT giving away spoilers, so breathe? In IIT? This is beyond preposterous and, to be fair on the IIT guys, a little insulting. All in all, the book was by far the worst read I've picked in a long while and don't think that I'll dare pick up another Chetan Bhagat novel in my life. Sorry, but I feel that one star is also grand for what I endured through the read Goodreads doesn't let me mark 0.
Chetan Bhagat is a lot better than many of his contemporaries in one aspect - at least his book titles don't resemble "She Broke Up, I Didn't!: I Just Kissed Someone Else! And So is My Girlfriend! View all 5 comments.
May 29, Indian rated it it was ok. Picked it up out of curiosity, as I am myself a B. Found it okie-dokie, but highly un-impressive. Is there any empirical research, any numbers to prove this pronouncement?
I doubt. Credit must go to Mr. But does his book leave any lasting impression? Who knows! Marketing success.. No doubt! He is the most sold Indian author!
You must be kidding us!! Timeless stories which are soaked to our mileu, created by men of genius. Few of them for ready reference: English R. Marathi Shiwaji Sawant…….
May 01, Mary Mahoney rated it it was amazing. A good book should be written so that any age group can enjoy it. And although I'd say I'm older than Professor Cherian, I can remember waiting on test results and definitely having the decision to make about how many hours to study.
Also, I've been on the other side of it giving assignments. There has to be a purpose for learning the material and being in excellent range, other than being a mugger. The book never mentions excellence and when it comes close to the subject only calls people topper and muggers.
Yet Chetan Bhagat cannot stay away from the issue of excellence entirely. The three 5 pointers approach the point of caring very much for excellence in their lubes laboratory study. They are given the lab credits strictly to make up the credits they are missing for graduation, but the more they work on it, the more they become vested in it.
Their advocate professor takes the proposal to private industry proud of its quality and confident that someone will fund further study if Ryan stays beyond to work on the study at IIT. So in the end there is excellence, an word never mentioned by the three friends. I gave the book a 5 because even on its own premise, that friendship is the most important thing at IIT, it's an outstanding read. View all 3 comments.
Aug 20, Vidyasagar Darapu rated it did not like it. Yes, it talks about IIT Delhi. And coincidentally I did go to college there. The book talks about a lot of places in IIT, the kind of people you meet and stuff and thats it. As far as my understanding goes, engineering blood in India can be classified as people who either want to be in an IIT, or are already in an IIT or missed their chance to be in an IIT.
So all that you have to do read this god forsaken book like a zillion years ago and still couldn't get rid of the sin that I have committed. So all that you have to do is give the monkey her banana. And thats exactly what Mr. Bhagat did. Wrote a book that everybody could chew and priced it within rupees and boooommmmmm We have the new messiah in town who changed people's minds and made them read No he didnt.
K Rowling did that He just sold a commodity that had made good business View 1 comment.
Aug 02, Sanjay Gautam rated it it was ok. Another great piece of trash from CB. Just because I could relate, a little bit, with the college life depicted; and because of mentioning Pink Floyd at one place; that this book has earned one extra star. Based on the average ratings and negative reviews, I don't think I'll read it.
I love " 3 Idiots " movie but I don't think the book has done any justice to the movie. Usually, the movies don't do justice to the books but in this case, it's vice versa. View all 4 comments. Jun 21, Silversnow rated it did not like it. It took effort! Real effort to give this 'immature diary entry' of a wannabe writer my valuable one star. After such a long time I decided to review this book, just because my inner dedicated reader wanted appreciation for tolerating this horrendous piece of abomination in the name of literature.
Being an IITian or alumni of any other elite institute unrelated to literature for that matter, doesn't give you a license to write such books and throw it in the face of innocent beginners who think if t It took effort! Being an IITian or alumni of any other elite institute unrelated to literature for that matter, doesn't give you a license to write such books and throw it in the face of innocent beginners who think if they read one or two such books they will gather knowledge of all kind of books that ever existed.
What disgusts me is the fact that some clueless youngsters even manage to relate to these books I seriously have no clue how they do that Maybe they think such unrealistic things will happen to them in future or whatever. I don't remember much of the story now but I managed to recall some of the flaws that irked me the most.
I just couldn't digest the discontinuous sentence structure with breaks and punctuation marks in unusual places. The other problem was the choice of weird words. It is a good thing if you have a good vocabulary but flaunting it, every random chance you get irritates the targeted readers.
I don't think I would ever recommend reading any of his books to anybody because I don't want any sensible reader to suffer like I did. I personally know some first time readers who refrain from reading any other books after reading this. Aug 28, Maninee rated it liked it. This book is seriously overrated. In , the editors of Ayurbed Shonjiboni, one of the first Bengali Ayurbedic journals, Bhogoboti Proshonno and Hori Proshonno Sen for example singled out the 'illiterate practitioners' as a prime target for their ire.
The Chikitsha Shommiloni, in is even more explicit in its use of strong language against 'quacks and illiterate practitioners. Chaudhuri at the Town Hall, called for similar measures for indigenous medicine to ensure that Boddis and Hakims in future learnt their craft through a pedagogical apparatus similar to western medicine and based on set texts and taught by recognised physicians. Thereby they set in motion a host of manoeuvres that sought to re-position the older texts as the basis of the system, arguing for a common pan-Indian Sanskrit root and proceed to Bengali Ayurbed: Texts and Practices 21 dis-enfranchise all those who practised Ayurvedic medicine which wqas non- textual, non-Sanskritic and thereby more often than not non-elite.
In time hence the narratives of antiquity start speaking of the Ayurbed as not merely a system, but inded a single lost text.
Thus Mitter speaks of the 'Ayur Veda' as the 'most venerable medical authority of the Hindus,' Calling it further a 'treatise of one thousand sections. Chopra similarly calls it the 'foundation stone of the ancient medical science of India. Bala's comment that, "Ayurveda, as we know it, is presented as a complete text as were the earlier Vedas," is this a fulfilment of the project that began with Mitter. Even the glimmer of hope that flickers in the active verb 'presented,' is extinguished later in the same paragraph when we are told that some time slightly after post-Vedic age, the 'Machiavellian' Brahmans seeing the fruitlessness of their attempts to thwart medical knowledge appropriated and codified it thus.
The question that Bala's national history never asks is 'who knows it as such'? Have the other meanings of Ayurbed.
Ajay Skaria has brilliantly demonstrated the fetishization of writing in the colonial context. Furhter 'logocentrism,' Skaria points out, is "often a ferocious critique of contemporary society The framing strategy as well its mythic productions, pre-eminent among which was the lost book of eight sections, all sought to establish a bourgeois medical system that removed the very marks of the political contexts that produced it i.
Yet this was not as easily and cleanly achieved as might be apprehended from the above account. Several rear-guard actions were fought to resist this new antiquity, and in various dark corners there continued to lurk the shadows of the un-buried ghosts of non-elite, non-textual, more recent pasts. Ironically for the historian then, the challenge lies in resurrecting those ghosts from within the very texts which were destined to be tombs raised on the death of them. The magical or the fabulous for instance, keeps haunting the very loxts that sought to exorcise it from its pale.
The Ayurbed Shommiloni, for example publishes an article by one Kobiraj Brojobollobh Ray about a case of bhoote- pnoa [spirit possession] where a young widowed niece of a much respected 22 The Calcutta Historical Journal.
July - December Bengali gentleman was given up as incurable by three allopathic doctors as well as the Kobiraj, before a lower class man [nimno sreni-r lok], a Roja [exorcist] succeeded in curing the girl.
The learned Kobiraj attempts to make sense of this seemingly irrational phenomenon by invoking explicatory paradigms as far removed as Christian theology and Nyaya epistemology. He thus mentions, that women are especially prone to possession, since in general it is the ritually polluted [oshuchi] and impure [lupto Shoto] people who are most susceptible. Not only does the dis-enfranchised and dis-owned subaltern practitioner make a triumphant return into the medical narrative but the latent equations of power that imprison the youthful widow in a life of few joys also returns through the fabulous into the very bastion of a publication established to propagate a rationalised, textualised and antique Ayurbedic tradition.
Curiously most of the scholars who have studied the revival of 'traditional' medicine in 19th Century Bengal, have tended to focus on the institutional innovations, such as the Tol Traditional school established by Gangadhar Ray of Shaidabad Berhampore or the sale of standardised medicines by Gangaprasad Sen, and later still the nexus between the revival and the nationalist movement; what is largely glossed over is the immense corpus of texts that were produced in cheap prints throughout the late 19th and early 20th Century.
It is mostly with these texts that we shall concern ourselves in the present essay. There are clearly three distinct trajectories that are visible in these publications. The first, and the arguably the most visible of the lot, are those which purport to be translations of old Sanskrit classics.
The second, looks curiously like the pharmacopoeias of western medicine, i. Finally, the third category comprises of an eclectic collection of cures for various diseases arranged according to deseases. Not that the lines between these three types were watertight or unimpeachable, one often encountered texts such as say, the RajBollobiyo Drobyoguunoh of Rajendranathnath Sen39, which, though a list of substances and their respective compositions and hence a member of the second category in our typology, claims to be a translation of an old classic.
Or, for example, consider Debendronath Ray's40 bilingual text that claimed to be a Materia Medica entrenched within the western medical tradition but included a discussion on the theory of fever. Thus the point we would reiterate at the very beginning is that the typology that we construct is largely heuristic and should bot be taken to be three different corpuses independent of each other.
Bengali Ayurbed i Frames. By nominating a particular text as being a 'translation', a sign is set up. A sign whose referent is deferred to another chronotope, in a 'space', that is both removed in time and place from the present context.
Thus the very act of nomination entails a denial of the present. Yet since the act of signification is in itself entrenched in its own sociohistorical provenance, this denial is largely tropological. Thus what we call 'discrepancies' here, is largely an attempt to retrieve this denied present in place of the defaulting anterior presence of a past referent.
We are also hopeful that this act of retrieval shall in itself shed some light upon the reasons for the deployment of this trope of denial. It is also perhaps important to reiterate that this retrieval in not merely a retrieval of a temporal axis of'presence', but indeed also a spatial context. Bakhtin's idea of a chronotope is helpful here, in that it refuses to make a rigid distinction between time and space, and views the two as an amalgam.
Thereby allowing us to pry open the distance between both the referred past in which these 'authentic originals' are situated and the contemporaneity of the act of translation; as also that between the extra-local homogenised space of 'antiquity'and the materiality of colonial Bengal.
Throughout our period a number of alleged translations of old Sanskrit Ayurbedic classics make their appearance.
Most prominent amongst these are the 'translations' of the Chorok Somhita, the Shushruto Shomhita and the Madhab Nidaan. One way of mapping the sovereignty of an alternate tradition is to trace the anomalies that creep into an alleged translation, and thenceforth to trace the recurrence of the same anomaly in later texts. Gangadhar Roy's41 Chorok Shomhita is held to be the first Bengali redaction of the text.
But in , A. Hoernle42, an Orientalist scholar of Ayurbedic anatomy had pointed out that there were severe discrepancies between the number of bones described as comprising the human body in the available Sanskrit MSS of Chorok and the redaction of Gangadhar. Comparing most of the late 19th Century Bengali translations to these lists, we find that despite minor differences there is a close adherence to Gangadhar's version.
In fact most of the discrepancies in the Gangadhar translation re-appear in these later texts.
Looking at Shotish Chondro Shorma's B. SholakaAsroyand Prishtho, instead of the single set in Chorok; there is also an anal bone called Gujhyo, which again is lacking in the original; similarly again a cluster of two bones called Kurcho are mentioned which are absent in Chorok's text; also present are 2 cheek bones called Gondo, three nasal bones called Ghonaland 17 breast bones, all of which though present 24 The Calcutta Historical Journal.
July - December in Gangadhar are absent in Chorok. Though Gangadhar's version appeared in , Obinash Chondro Kobirotno's44 edition in , Debendronath and Upendronath Sengupto's45 edition in , and subsequently another edition in , all restate the same figure. Clearly, the repetition of the same errors over and over again point to a significant degree of inter-textuality, if not the existence of an alternate and un-stated canon.
In fact this alternate canon became so far hegemonic by the end of the nineteenth century that when Jibonanondo Bidyasagor, whose version of the text had been true to the original, released a second edition in , he changed it to match the set proposed by Gangadhar, apoligising for the errors in the earlier edition. Another aspect of these texts which are of seminal importance but shows considerable variations are the renditions of the Tridosh pathology.
In , Vaidyaratna Captain G. This became a sort of canon for all later committees appointed for similar purposes and was not only appended to the Report of the Government of India Committee in , but also got its author co-opted as a member of the said Committee.
In the memorandum Murti outlines the fundamentals of the Ayurbedictradition. While discussing the Ayurbedic theory of pathology, Murti writes, The three Dhatus knwon as Vata, Pitha and Kapha are the three elementary and fundamental units or principles on which the building and sustenance of the body depend When they are in normal equilibrium, it is healthy; and ill-health when they are not, in which case the Dhatus are technically known as Doshes literally Faults; this is because in this condition they give rise to Faults or ill-health in the body.
Also noteworthy here is the fact that Doshes and Dhatus are essentially identical. What in its normal condition of equilibrium is called a Dhatu, becomes a Dosh when it is in the unnatural condition of dis-equilibrium.
On the other hand in Shotish Chondro's text for example, it is said, Depending on the type of their actions, there are three types of substances. Some substances are such that, by their effect, they bring the three Doshes Doshthroy namely, Baayu, Pittwo and Kaaph into equilibrium. Some other are such that their effect give rise to Doshes in Dhatus such as Blood Rokto John Marshall, who visited Bengali Ayurbed: Texts and Practices 25 India in the 17th Century for instance is told by Nilkanth, a 'doctor from Hughli' that there are seven Dhatus which are distinct from the Doshes.
Yet elsewhere Marshall is told, that there are seven Dhatus and they are identical with the Doshes, since each Dhatu has a corresponding Dosh. Though usually Dhatus are rarely used as diagnostic indices, occasionally even this happens. Wise for instance, who asw we know depnded mainly on Bengali interlocutors such as, AbhaycharanTarapanchanan and Madhusudan Gupta, to arrive at a comprehensive view of mid-nineteenth century Ayurbed, notes that, When the principal humours dhatus are deranged, the disease is called by the name of othe humour affected; such as rasaja chyle Yet even here, when they are indeed used as diagnostic causes, they are no longer treated as being composed of other doshes.
Thus this much at least is safe to contend that, even those interpretations of classical theory that did in fact use the shoptodhatus as diagnostic causes, still continued to equate doshes and dhatus. The distinction posited by Shotish Chondro, is hence completely novel as is the subsequent relationship of inherence of the dosh in the dhatu. In the Bengali texts we repeatedly find this laxity in the use of technical terms.
Yet there remains a second possible reading of Shotish Chondro's formulation i. This reading too in fact has a genealogy of its own as can be seen from the following comments of T.
Wise,49 who significantly collected his material, from Bengali interlocutors and even his footnotes are occasionally given in the Bangla script. According to Wise, The air vayu , bile pitta , and phlegm kofa , are the three pillars or supports of the system Could it be then that 'blood' as a humour was appropriated from Unani Tibb? Though a seductively easy solution, there are other facts to be considered.
Comparing the usage of Katyayana and Patanjali on the doshes with the usage to be found in the Buddhist Pali canon Hartmut Scharfe has mentioned that, "though Katyayana and Patanjali share the expressions vatika, paittikas, slaismika and sannipatika with the classical medical texts, the meanings of these terms do not match exactly those found 26 The Calcium Historical Journal.
Later still from around the middle of the 6th Century A. The manuscripts contain three medicinal tracts. While one might argue that phlegm and wind are undesirable intruders phlegm was not listed as part of the body in the older Vedic ritual texts, though it was in the Satapatha- brahmana and in Buddhist texts , this cannot be said about bile, which has always been considered part of a healthy body [i.
The ambiguous role of the blood - often lining up with the dosas while frequently listed as one of the bodily elements dhatus -has been discussed by several later Ayurvedic authors. It is well beyond the scope of this paper to investigate if the divergence between the Pali canon and the conceptions of Katyayana and Patanjali, was caused due to the regional differences or difference in dialects.
Yet the fact that there were alternative views available within the Ayurbedic tradition, which has strong similarities with the Unani tradition, may point towards a complex process of mimetic legitimation. A unilinear developmental model is premised on there being discrete and unified traditions in contact with one another from which mutual borrowing may take place through various dialogic transactions. An alternate model to conceptualise similarities between different traditions which exist in close proximity to each other would be to see all traditions as being comprised of plural possibilities.
Locked in close proximity these traditions might then accent those readings which are common to both, in an attempt to derive legitimation from each other. The neighbouring traditions are thus locked into a mimetic vertigo, where each incorporate elements of each other's narratives thus mutually drawing legitimation from each other. Elsewhere again, while discussing the action and growth of Baathic fever, one of the eight types of fevers recognised by the Ayurbedic tradition, Shotish Chondro writes, The effected Baayu then enters into the stomach amashoy and combines with the digestive fire jothoraagni , henceforthe it depends upon the first product of the digestive process i.
Texts and Practices 27 What then is the relation posited between the Dhatu and the dosh? It is definitely not one of the former being constituted or made up by the later. For then how can the dosh 'depend' upon the dhatu? Not only do we have yet another example here of the extremely loose usage of the word Dhatu, but more importantly there is talk of the disease causing the effected or polluted Baayu actually "entering' the stomach and then moving to different places in the body from thereon.
But as we have heard Murti tell us, Vayu is supposed to be an elementary and fundamental building block of the body. What then does it mean to talk of its as entering here or leaving there?
Is it not then being visualised as a localised agent causing disease? We do not wish to argue here that the idea of a motile Baayu was novel to Ayurbed in the late 19th century, indeed Dr.
Arthur Ewing had spokent of five vital breaths mentioned in the Yajur and Atharva Veda way back in What was novel was the attempt to use the language of plural winds to communicate ideas of a localised malady within the body, rather than a generalised malady caused by an imbalance of the three doshes. Instead of speaking terms of ill-health caused by an imbalance in the body's constituents, it suggests a series of mobile but definitely localised sites that are stimulated to an extent whre their potential malevolence becomes activated and then circulates through various paths to different parts of the body causing ill-health.
Consider for example this archetypical formulation from Saroda Choron Sen's B. Since it is when they get mischievous taht the body is polluted.
When they are mischievous to the point whre thay can cause disease the three doshes travel by various paths to different pahs of the body, and give rise to ill-health and suffering While this might be true for the Ayurvedic practices studied by her, it is in need of the Ayurbedic discourse of colonial Bengali Ayurbed to localise pathogens in an anatomical space i.
Further this anatomical space was not identical to the 28 The Calcutta Historical Journal.
July - December anatomical space of the bio-medical tradition. Another important qualification to keep in mind in this regard is the fact that denotative speech which localises its referent in an anatomical space can still be metaphorical in describing its referents, such as, for example, in the case of the pulse, where while the three doshes to be felt in the act of diagnosis are clearly described metaphorically, the language is still denotative in giving detailed and localised directions as to where and how to feel for the doshes.
In fact the large-scale use of birechon purges and bomon vomiting , further suggests a clear division between the anatomical space and the outer space.
In fact, zysk commenting on the development of anatomical knowledge in Ayurbed has mentioned that despite efforts of scholars such as Hoernle and Filliozat, it is difficult to identify the exact organs known to the authors of the Sutras B. Though the Charok Shomhita technically predates the Shushruto, yet the extant versions of the Chorok are mostly held to be dating at best from the 8th Century, when Dhrirabal62 redacted and substantially added to the original, further we have already seen that the Chorok used in Bengal was Gongadhor Ray's version which displayed defintie evidence of having been shaped and influenced by someone who was conversant with the Shushruto text.
Such a conclusion is supported by the use of reletively specialised Shushrotoisms such as the word Kurcho to designate a cluster of bones. Langford has argued that, the division betweent he inner anatomical space of the body and the external space is not only central to the bio-medical discouse but also allegorical of the sort of spatial arrangement that marks the modern nation-state with defintie boundaries.
Unfortunately, in this case Langford seems to have fallen prey to the impulse towards describing Ayurbed as an absolute and diametric opposite of bio-medicine. Though admittedly Ayurbedic bodies are indeed often fluidly connected to their environments, an absolute difference at the conceptual level between all forms of Ayurbed and bio-medicine seems to warrant some qualification. In fact insinuating perhaps what we have called 'mimetic legitimation' Langford too has spoken of the attempts to translate Ayurbed as 'science,' thus stressing the continuity with bio-medical forms at one level.
What she seems to be describing when she, Bengali Ayurbed: Texts ami Practices 29 after compairng the practices of three contemporary practitioners of Ayurbed in enframing the body mentions that "each of these physicians resist modern forms of knowledge at different levels What we designate as 'dialectic legitimation' is a mode of presentation of a medical praxis that draws legitimation by asserting its radical opposition to another medical praxis.
Both 'dialectic' and 'mimetic' forms of legitimation are then tied into a relationship of mutuality with proximate alternative praxes. Yet while 'dialectic' forms of legitimation seem more symptomatic of the post-colonial contemporary praxes that Langford studies and which cater increasingly by her own affirmation to a growing niche for 'alternative' medicines; 'mimetic legitimation' seems more typical of the colonial period.
It is cogent though to remind ourselves how easy it is to over-estimate the role of the Tridosh pathology in Ayurbed. In fact in certain ways it is this over- estimation that has largely contributed to the reading of Ayurbed at text rather than as practice.
Wilson, for instance, wrote in the Transactions of the Medical and Physical Society of Calcutta in that 'treatises on individual diseases were unknown to Hindu medicine' and that they always sought to construct a system. The first are a set such as Horolal Gupto's67 Ayurbed Bhashabhidan which attempts to establish a common language of nomenclature for the various drugs and drug substances while the second are typified by Nogendronath Sengupto's Drobyoguun Shikkha and sought to exhaustively list all elements that one was likely to come into contact with and acquaint one with their Ayurbedic composition in terms of three Ayurbedic quasi-humours i.
Baath, Pittwo and Kaaph. Both genres share at least a morphological similarity with the Materia Medicas of the West'. Gupto's text was first published in B. In the preface to his first edition, Gupto had written that, These days most Auyrbedic texts tend to follow the language in use in Calcutta. This is usually the cause for great constenation for the lay practitioner of Ayurbedic 30 The Calcutta Historical Journal.
July December medicine. They tend to get their training in one particular district and learn the names of the herbs in that district's language, but then because of various exigencies have to move to another district where the herbs are known by another name. The translations available are not always accurate, and it is to eradicate this grave impediment that I have undertaken to write this book.
Clearly then the material trappings of modernity i. But more importantly for us, it also pointed towards the hegemonic gesture made by a Calcutta- based nomenclatorial system towards a plethora of localised registers of names.
In the third edition of his text Gupto includes a strikingly modern classificatory system for arranging herbs, according to whether they bear flower or not, the type of roots, the type of leaves etc. There are lists of names, in different languages, followed by a physical description of the plant in terms of the type of leaves, flowers, appearance, height etc.
Of course the names in the English texts are given in provincial languages such as Bengali, Tamil, Hindi etc. Similarly, the texts referred to in the former are those of a host of earlier writers such as de O'rta, Royle, O'Shaughnessy etc.
Michel Forcault, while recounting the defining moment of 'natural history'promulgated by scholars like Linnaeus,68 described its arangement of discourse according to the following plan: All the language deposited upon things by time is pushed back into the very last category, in a sort of supplement in which discourse is allowed to recount itself and record discoveries, traditions, beliefs, and poetical figures.
The difference between the earlier English texts and the Bengali ones lay only in the fact that, the litteraria had diferent referents. A case perhaps not only of mimetic legitimation but also of a form of culture politics similar to nationalism, which, while sharing its form with the colonial project, sought to invoke other pasts and differnt memories.
Interestingly Gupto further writes, The number of pollens in each flower vary.
Some experts on plants have attempted to classify them according to the number of pollens in each. Even some Aryan seers are said to have attempted to have done this. Today though such practices are hardly deemed necessary, and hence I too have decided against including them here.
Hengali Awtrhed. Texts anil Tim li, es 31 A clear indication of the debate in botany about the natural and the Linnaean systems of plant classification, which is once again mimetically incorporated into an 'Aryan' past. Significantly though this past is one which can apparently be selectively used, and the selection further can take place along a simple criterion of 'current usage'.
The author's second book, a romantic comedy made into in the movie 'Hello' starring Salman Khan and Gul Panag with Bhagat writing its screenplay. His first two books have sold over one million copies and counting and his latest book 'The three mistakes of my life' that deals with the issues of religion, business and cricket is also being made into a movie titles 'Three Idiots' starring Aamir Khan.
Dr Piyush Kumar of Prakashan Publications which has published Bhagat's books in Hindi says, "In the last ten years I have never seen such a fast track sales like that of Bhagat. His books in English are selling well and we have seen that in the past 15 days his books in Hindi have sold 15, copies and the demand is very high.
He said he would read Five Point Someone in Hindi and carry the English version in his hand to show off! Six magazines, wherever you go! Command crowned overall champions in Navy yatching. Parents of youths killed in encounter decry sons' ultra links.