User-computer dialogues are typically one-sided, with the bandwidth from computer to user far greater than that from user to computer. The movement of a user's. Eye Movement-Based Human Computer Interaction Techniques - Download as Word Doc .doc), PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Eye tracking based human computer interaction: Applications and their uses . Eye movement-based input techniques in Man and. Machine.
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Download Citation on ResearchGate | Eye Movement-Based Human-Computer Interaction Techniques: Toward Non-Command Interfaces | User-computer. Our emphasis is on the study of interaction techniques that incorporate eye movements into the user-computer dialogue in a convenient and natural way. In this regard, eye movement is a promising input medium for human computer interaction. In this paper we discussed various eye tracking techniques that can.
Multimedia Citation Statistics Citations 0 20 40 '92 '98 '05 '12 ' Semantic Scholar estimates that this publication has citations based on the available data. See our FAQ for additional information. References Publications referenced by this paper. Highly Influential. Augmenting a window system with speech input Chris Schmandt , Mark S. Ackerman , Debby Hindus Computer Human-computer interaction using eye-gaze input Thomas E. Hutchinson , K.
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PI was measured by items adapted from Venkatesh et al. It is technology independent and widely used by the worldwide developers of hardware, software, website, and so forth. The questionnaire comprised 10 questions, and each item was scored from 1 strongly disagree to 5 strongly agree.
The result of the questionnaire is a value between 1 and In preparation for the experiment, a desktop computer with inch flat screen at a resolution LCD was used. The virtual mouse program was created.
Mouse cursor control functions were realized with an Eye Tribe Tracker device, which is cheap but with good accuracy. A document of the experimental tasks was created to guide the participants in the experiment. At the beginning of the experiment, participants were given an introduction to the virtual mouse. Then they were allowed to spend about 5 minutes to practice the virtual mouse by themselves. Then, a calibration with the eye tracker followed. Participants then were ready to start solving the tasks with the proposed system.
During the task, volunteers were only allowed to use the proposed application to carry out the experimental process without mouse and keyboard devices. Then they were asked to fill the questionnaire of TAM for the proposed virtual mouse system, by which we can predict and explain user acceptance and rejection of the proposed system.
The process allows the participants to use various eye control functions, such as left-click, right-click, scrolling, antiwhite, and virtual keyboard function. The TAM results of using the proposed system in searching task are shown in Table 1. The mean values of each construct are between 2. Among these constructs, the mean value of PU 2. The first two high scores of the mean value were credited to PI in the first place and ATU in the second, respectively, 3. In addition, the mean values of EOU 3.
Table 1: TAM results of the searching task. Browsing Experiment In this section, we made comparisons of performances between the proposed system and the previous system [ 16 ] from both subjective TAM questionnaire and objective evidences operation time.
In addition, we also asked users to fill out SUS questionnaire on our system to evaluate the user satisfaction of the system in browsing task. Each participant had used both the systems, with a random using order. Similar to searching experiment procedure, participants were instructed in the system, had a practice with the system, and obtained a calibration with the eye tracker before task beginning.
Participants were first instructed to complete using one of the random assigned systems and fill in the questionnaire to the system. Then they were allowed to use the other system and finish the questionnaires. The processes of the browsing task are shown as follows: a Please select the webpage such as social platform, online text you want to browse. This task allows the participants to frequently use the basic eye control functions, such as left-click and scrolling.
In browsing task, the means of each construct are more than those in searching task, implying that participants consider that the tool is more suitable for browsing than searching. Similar to searching task, in the browsing task the first two high scores were also credited to PI 4.
Table 2: TAM results of the browsing task. Comparison Results Subjective Comparison Results. To assess the statistical significance of differences between the virtual mouse systems, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used. This nonparametric test was used in place of a more traditional analysis of variance approach because the sample size is small.
Table 2 shows the results of the Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. As shown in Table 2 , the proposed system experiences significantly higher value at the PU.
The mean value of the proposed system is 3. It implies that the proposed system is considered to be more useful than the compared system [ 16 ] during simple operating in browsing system. The proposed system experienced an average of 4.
These indicate that in general participant perceived the proposed system as more advantages to use in browsing task. Though no significant difference was found on EOU between the proposed system and compared system, participants generally considered the proposed system easier to use than the compared system. Objective Comparison Results. To obtain objective evaluation data, we recorded the operation times of scrolling action from 5 participants to compare between the proposed system and the compared system [ 16 ].
The time it takes for the user to successfully open the scrolling function is recorded. It implies that the proposed system is more time saving than the other systems in browsing. Table 4 presents the results of the SUS questionnaires. The system achieves a SUS score of Table 4: SUS results of the browsing task. As shown in Table 4 , all the means of the odd items are higher than 2.
Among these odd items, item 5, item 7, and item 9 obtained scores more than three, which implies that most participants believe that the functions of the system are well integrated and easy to use. Among the even items, all the means of the items are lower than 2. This reveals that this system is not difficult to use and the participants are able to use this system without much technical help. Overall, the feedback from the participations shows that they are satisfied with the proposed virtual mouse system.
Conclusions In order to make user interact with computer naturally and conveniently by only using their eye, we provide an eye tracking based control system. The system not only enables the disabled users to operate the computer the same as the normal users do but also provides normal users with a novel choice to operate computer. According to our TAM questionnaire analysis, the participants considered our eye movement system to be easy to learn.
Meanwhile, participants show their interest in using the proposed eye control system to search and browse information. They are looking forward to see more of our research results on the use of eye tracking technique to interact with the computer. In browsing experiment, the proposed system improves the browsing efficiency and experience, and with the system user can interact with multimedia with little effort. Comparing with the previous system, the participants generally prefer to use our virtual mouse system in system interface design and operation experience.
The proposed system is shown to be more effective and time saving than the compared system according to the objective evidence. In the SUS questionnaire section, the participants consider that the system is of high integration functions in a simple way.
In addition, the operations of the system are easy to learn and use in the integration with Internet and multimedia. Currently, this system is applied for the general operating behavior to interact with computer by simulating mouse and keyboard. In future, we will try to add new operation functions for more usage situations for users to communicate with media and adjust our system on new platform, such as tablet or phone.
We will also develop series operation modules in order to achieve a complete operating experience for users from turning on to turning off the computer. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. References Q. Sun, J. Xia, N. Nadarajah, T. Falkmer, J. Foster, and H. Scott, C. Green, and S. Takemura, K. Takahashi, J. Takamatsu, and T. Jacob and K. View at Google Scholar O. Ferhat and F. Eid, N. Giakoumidis, and A.
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